How are biological agents transmitted?

How are biological agents transmitted?

Biological agents spread through the air, water, or in food. Some can also spread from person to person. They can be very hard to detect. They don’t cause illness for several hours or days.

Which of the following are potential biological agent delivery methods?

During World War I, the Germans developed anthrax, glanders, cholera, and a wheat fungus for use as biological weapons. They allegedly spread plague in St Petersburg, infected mules with glanders in Mesopotamia, and attempted to do the same with the horses of the French cavalry.

How are bioweapons delivered?

Biological weapon delivery systems can take a variety of forms. Past programmes have constructed missiles, bombs, hand grenades and rockets to deliver biological weapons. A number of programmes also designed spray-tanks to be fitted to aircraft, cars, trucks, and boats.

Which biological agent is obtained from castor beans?

Ricin is one of the most toxic biological agents known—a Category B bioterrorism agent and a Schedule number 1 chemical warfare agent. Ricin toxin can be extracted from castor beans, purified and treated to form a pellet, a white powder, or dissolved in water or weak acid to be released as a liquid.

How are bioweapons used?

Sometimes known as “germ warfare,” biological weapons involve the use of toxins or infectious agents that are biological in origin. This can include bacteria, viruses, or fungi. These agents are used to incapacitate or kill humans, animals, or plants as part of a war effort.

What kind of aircraft is used to deliver biological agents?

Cruise missiles, aircraft carrying gravity bombs or spray attachments, and fixed-wing or rotor craft with attached sprayers are all vehicles for delivery of biological agents. The delivery of biological agents by explosive devices is much less efficient (~1-5 percent).

Which is less efficient delivery of biological agents?

The delivery of biological agents by explosive devices is much less efficient (~1-5 percent). Effective delivery of these agents must also consider the environmental effects on the agent (inactivation).

What kind of equipment is used to disperse biological agents?

Equipment used with aerosol dispersal of biological agents includes spray nozzles or aerosol delivery systems capable of dispersing particles or droplets and compressors for initial weaponization by agent integration with compressed gas (air).

How are biological and toxic agents used in everyday life?

The deliberate or intentional use of biological and toxic agents to harm populations is not new. Throughout history, governments, organizations, and individuals have used biological and toxic agents for malicious purposes, including as weapons of war (biowarfare), a form of terrorism (bioterrorism), or criminal acts (biocrime) ( Table 24.1 ).

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