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How do Phytophthora infestans reproduce?

How do Phytophthora infestans reproduce?

infestans will infect the plant by direct germination—that is a germ tube will form from the sporangium and will penetrate the host tissue allowing it to gain nutrients from its host (Schumann and D’Arcy 2000). Sexual reproduction, can and does occur when both mating types are present.

What is the means of asexual reproduction in Phytophthora?

As with other Oomycetes such as Pythium, Phytophthora can propagate sexually or asexually. In constrast, asexual reproduction involves the formation of sporangia and biflagellated wall-less zoospores. Sporangia of many Phytophthora species may germinate directly through a germ tube or indirectly by releasing zoospores.

What kind of spores does Phytophthora make for reproduction?

Chlamydospores and Oospores Phytophthora produces two kinds of spores designed for long-term survival: chlamydospores (clam-EE-doe-spores) and oospores (OH-oh-spores). Both types of spores are round and have thick walls that protect them.

What causes Phytophthora infestans?

The infection is caused by the zoospores found in the soil or that fall onto the tubers from infected foliage during harvest. Following germination the zoospores penetrate into the tubers through the “eyes”, lenticels, growth cracks, wounds, or via the point of attachment to the plant (the stolon) (Lapwood, 1977).

Where is Phytophthora infestans found?

The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes.

What kingdom is Phytophthora infestans in?

Potato late blight fungus/Kingdom

What is Phytophthora spp?

Phytophthora spp. are mostly pathogens of dicotyledons, and many are relatively host-specific parasites. Phytophthora infestans was the infective agent of the potato blight that caused the Great Famine of Ireland, and still remains the most destructive pathogen of solanaceous crops, including tomato and potato.

What is the asexual reproduction of oomycetes?

Oomycetes can reproduce asexually, by forming a structure called a sporangium or zoosporangium. Inside these sporangia, zoospores are produced, first the primary zoospore and then the secondary zoospore, which is laterally flagellated. Their flagellum allow the zoospores to move rapidly through water.

Where does Phytophthora come from?

Summary: Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands was first isolated from cinnamon trees in Sumatra in 1922. The pathogen is believed to have originated near Papua New Guinea but now has a worldwide distribution.

How does Phytophthora Cinnamomi spread?

cinnamomi grows through roots and can spread to the roots of adjacent plants where root-to-root contact occurs. Root- to-root movement of the pathogen is thought to be one of the major ways in which the pathogen moves upslope. cinnamomi with no effort on the part of the pathogen is referred to as passive dispersal. P.

When was Phytophthora infestans discovered?

The pathogen was first described by M. J. Berkeley (Figure 2A) and subsequently named Phytophthora infestans by Anton de Bary (Figure 2B) in the 1870’s (Berkeley, 1846; de Bary, 1876). de Bary’s (Figure 2B) (the “father of plant pathology”) conclusive studies convinced the scientific community that the white …

Is Phytophthora infestans seed borne?

Although Phytophthora infestans is seedborne in tomato, to our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of oospores in tomato seeds. Whether such tomato seeds produce blighted seedlings remains to be shown.

How does the Phytophthora infestans reproduction take place?

Phytophthora infestans Life History & Reproduction Life History & Reproduction Because P. infestans is a host-specific parasite, it needs plant tissue to grow in. Usually, as was the case in Ireland, P. infestans reproduces asexually. Its life cycle usually begins as the sporangia are carried by the wind, land on plant tissue, and

When does sexual reproduction occur in p.infestans?

Sexual reproduction, can and does occur when both mating types are present. The antheridium and oogonium (the only haploid parts in the life cycle of P. infestans) nuclei will fuse together (karyogamy) when the antheridium enters the oogonium.

How is the antheridium formed in Phytophthora infestans?

The detailed process of sexual reproduction of Phytophthora infestans is given (Fig. 4.24): Antheridium is formed at the tip of the lateral hypha. The tip swells up and then a partition wall develops at the base which cuts off the upper antheridium contai­ning one or two nuclei.

How does a Phytophthora or Mastigomycotina reproduce?

The fungus reproduces by Vegetative, asexual and rarely by sexual methods. Many species of Phytophthora (P. colocasiae and P. parasitica) reproduce by means by Chlamydospores. These vegetative reproductive bodies may be terminal or intercalary.

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