What causes the formation of thunder?

What causes the formation of thunder?

Answer. Thunder is caused by the rapid expansion of the air surrounding the path of a lightning bolt. As lightning connects to the ground from the clouds, a second stroke of lightning will return from the ground to the clouds, following the same channel as the first strike.

How does heat play a role in thunderstorms?

On a hot summer day the surface of the Earth is heated by the sun. The Earth’s surface heats the air just above the surface through the process of conduction. The action of warm air rising and cold air sinking (convection) plays a key role in the formation of severe thunderstorms.

Does temperature affect thunder?

Thunderstorms that develop when it’s cooler can result in louder, longer-lasting thunder than those in warmer weather. This occurs because of how sound travels in colder conditions and something called a temperature inversion, or when a layer of warmer air is above a layer of cooler air near the surface.

How thunder and lightning are formed?

Lightning is a discharge of electricity. A single stroke of lightning can heat the air around it to 30,000°C (54,000°F)! This extreme heating causes the air to expand explosively fast. The expansion creates a shock wave that turns into a booming sound wave, known as thunder.

Why do heat waves cause thunderstorms?

The high humidity, in conjunction with warm temperatures, creates massive amounts of warm, moist air rising into the atmosphere, where it can easily form a thunderstorm. As the process of evaporation and condensation occurs, these droplets collide with other moisture that is condensing as it rises.

How is the coefficient of thermal expansion defined?

The coefficient of thermal expansion is defined as the change in length or volume of a material for a unit change in temperature. The overall coefficient is the linear thermal expansion (in.) per degree 6061 13.5 x 10-6 (24.3 x 10 ) 13.0 x 10 (23.4 x 10 ) 12.1 x 10 (21.8 x 10 ) 7075 13.5 x 10-6

How is sensible and latent heat transferred in wind?

Wind is the horizontal movement of air, transporting energy transferred from the earth’s surface as sensible and latent heat. Sensible heat is transferred by the processes of conduction and convection. Conduction transfers energy within a substance, and convection transfers energy through the vertical movement of the heated substance.

Why is thermal diffusivity important in shale formation?

Due to the low permeability of shales, the coefficient of thermal diffusivity is at least a few orders of magnitude greater than the coefficient of fluid diffusivity. Hence, heat transfer in the formation will be dominated by diffusion, and convective transfer by fluid flow may be ignored.

How does frontal lifting occur in a weather system?

Frontal lifting occurs when a warmer air mass meets a colder one. Since warm air is less dense than cold, a warm air mass approaching a cold one will ascend over the cold air. This forms a warm front. When a cold air mass approaches a warm one, it wedges under the warmer air, lifting it above the ground.

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