Short-Question

# What does XOR do in programming?

## What does XOR do in programming?

XOR is a bitwise operator, and it stands for “exclusive or.” It performs logical operation. If input bits are the same, then the output will be false(0) else true(1).

### What does XOR stand for?

eXclusive OR
XOR stands for eXclusive OR. As can be seen, the output values of XNOR are simply the inverse of the corresponding output values of XOR.

#### What is XOR of a number?

XOR is defined as exclusive or for two integers say a and b. To find XOR, we will first find the binary representation of both a and b. Lets do this also by example. Suppose a = 7 and b = 10. So binary representation of a = 111 (see explanation above) and b = 1010 (see explanation above).

What are the properties of XOR?

Important properties of XOR

• Commutative : A ⊕ B = B ⊕ A. This is clear from the definition of XOR: it doesn’t matter which way round you order the two inputs.
• Associative : A ⊕ ( B ⊕ C ) = ( A ⊕ B ) ⊕ C.
• Identity element : A ⊕ 0 = A.
• Self-inverse : A ⊕ A = 0.

XOR is also called modulo-2 addition.

## Why XOR is used for encryption?

XOR, or “exclusive or” operates on binary data. It returns true if both of its inputs are opposites (one false and one true), otherwise, it returns false. The XOR operation can be used as a simple cipher for encrypting and decrypting messages with a single key.

### How is XOR implemented?

A way to remember XOR is “must have one or the other but not both”. XOR can also be viewed as addition modulo 2. As a result, XOR gates are used to implement binary addition in computers. A half adder consists of an XOR gate and an AND gate….XOR gate.

Input Output
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0

#### What is the XOR problem?

The XOR, or “exclusive or”, problem is a classic problem in ANN research. It is the problem of using a neural network to predict the outputs of XOR logic gates given two binary inputs. An XOR function should return a true value if the two inputs are not equal and a false value if they are equal.

How do you represent XOR?

The logic symbols ⊕, Jpq, and ⊻ can be used to denote an XOR operation in algebraic expressions. C-like languages use the caret symbol ^ to denote bitwise XOR.

What happens when you XOR twice?

2) (Nice-to-have reason) XOR is an involutory function, i.e., if you apply XOR twice, you get the original plaintext back (i.e, XOR(k, XOR(k, x)) = x , where x is your plaintext and k is your key).

## What is the bitwise operator in C programming?

Summary Bitwise operators are special operator set provided by ‘C.’ They are used in bit level programming. These operators are used to manipulate bits of an integer expression. Logical, shift and complement are three types of bitwise operators. Bitwise complement operator is used to reverse the bits of an expression.

### What is a ternary operator in C programming?

In C Programming language, ternary operator allows executing different code depending on the value of a condition, and the result of the expression is the returned value of the executed code. The main advantage of using ternary operator is to reduce the number of line codes and improve the performance of application.

#### What is a sizeof function in C programming?

Type: Sizeof operator is a unary operator whereas strlen () is a predefined function in C

• Data types supported: Sizeof gives actual size of any type of data (allocated) in bytes (including the null values) whereas get the length of an array of chars/string.
• Evaluation size: sizeof () is a compile-time expression giving you the size of a type or a variable’s type. It doesn’t care about the value of the variable.
• What are C code operators?

C programming operators. C programming operators are symbols that tell the compiler to perform certain mathematical or logical manipulation. In simple terms, we can say operators are used to manipulating data and variables. For example: +, – are the operators used for mathematical calculation.